A peptide is a chemical compound containing two or more amino acids(amino acid polymers) that are coupled by a Peptides Bond . This bond is a special linkage in which the nitrogen atom of one amino acid binds to the carboxyl carbon atom of another.
Peptides are often classified according to the number of amino acid residues. Oligopeptides have 10 or fewer amino acids. Molecules consisting from 10 to 50 amino acids are called peptides. The term protein describes molecules with more than 50 amino acids.
Molecules with molecular weights ranging from several thousand to several million daltons (D) are called polypeptides. The terms polypeptide and protein are frequently used interchangeably.
In 1901, the first synthetic glycyl-glycine (see picture) was discovered by Emil Fischer, in collaboration with Ernest Fourneau. The first polypeptide (oxytocin – nine amino acid sequence) was synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953.
Synthetic hormones have a wide range of applications in medicine and biotechnology. They regulate most physiological processes, acting at some sites as endocrine or paracrine signals and at others as neurotransmitters or growth factors.
Insulin was the first therapeutic protein to be introduced to treat insulin-dependent diabetes in the 1920s. There are sixty FDA approved peptide drugs in the market. About 140 these drugs are in clinical trials and over 500 are in pre-clinical development.
A number of these research chemicals are used for diagnostic purposes, for example C-peptide is used to monitor insulin production and to help determine the cause of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
These chemicals are synthesized by coupling the carboxyl group or C-terminus of one amino acid to the amino group or N-terminus of another. There are two strategies for synthetic hormone synthesis: liquid-phase synthesis and solid-phase synthesis (SPPS).
The goal of this project is to collect all information about peptides and their synthesis in one place.
Brief overview of popular peptide products:
ACE-031 is an activin type 2 receptor, which is a myostatin inhibitor. ACE-031 is a protein that was designed to bind to myostatin before it can attach to its receptor and suppress muscle growth. Myostatin is a hormone produced by our bodies that signal muscles to stop growing and developing. Thus, by inhibiting or blocking myostatin, muscles would be able to grow bigger and stronger.
Adipotide is a completely different weight loss drug. It works by cutting off the blood supply to fat cells. Adipotide causes the blood vessels that supply the fat cells with blood to shrink and eventually leads to fat tissue death. The dead tissue is then reabsorbed and metabolized by the body. It also lowers the level of insulin resistance drastically which is the main sign of metabolic disorders like diabetes.
BPC-157 is a peptide that is derived from human gastric juice and is being researched for its regenerative and healing effects. BPC stands for Body Protecting Compound. Our body produces it in our own gastric juices in very tiny amounts where it protects and heals stomach and gut. BPC-157 speeds up the healing of existing injuries and protects the body from new injuries. It is completely free of side effects and research has shown that it can repair tendons, muscles, intestines, teeths, bones and more.
CJC-1295 DAC is a tetrasubstituted peptide used to increase Growth Hormone production. It is in the class of Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) analogs. GHRH is the name of naturally occurring hormone in the human body, it is not commonly used because of its high price and extremely short half-life. CJC1295 is the improved version of GHRH with addition of DAC – Drug Affinity Complex. CJC1295 DAC provides stable blood levels after injections and half-life of approximately one week. Generally, CJC1295 is not used alone, but used in conjunction with a peptide of the GHRP category, for instance GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin.
DSIP is a neuropeptide that stands for Delta sleep-inducing peptide. It works by inducing spindle and delta EEG activity and by reducing motor activity. DSIP is used to improve sleep quality. It also lowers corticotropin levels and prevents its release. DSIP also helps the body to release more LH (Luteinizing Hormone). Additionally, it assists in Growth Hormone release and suppresses the production of Somatostatin. DSIP is also known to normalize the blood pressure and might slow down the cell damage by offering anti-oxidant benefits.
Erythropoietin (a.k.a EPO) is a glycoprotein made by interstitial fibroblasts in kidneys, that stimulate the red blood production. More red blood improves delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the muscles. The extra oxygen greatly increases the muscles energy production and can help to improve athletic performance output – longer duration and higher intensity. Endurance athletes are highly attracted to EPO because of the effect it has on red blood cell production.
Epitalon is a synthetically produced tetrapeptide. Its main function is to increase the production of telomerase, a natural ferment that aids cells to produce telomeres, which allows the body to regenerate old cells and grow new ones. Epitalon has also been shown to suppress the growth of cancer cells, allowing to live longer, happier and healthier life. Studies show that Epitalon is a strong antioxidant which gets rid of free radicals that are responsible for damaging and destroying cells.
Follistatin is an interesting protein that is able to increase the muscle growth beyond natural limits by inhibiting myostatin, a hormone that regulates muscle growth negatively. Follistatin is naturally produced in almost all mammals. Follistatin works by binding and inhibiting myostatin. Myostatin also has a role in a regulation of fibrosis, too much myostatin can cause chronic diseases in internal organs, bones, and tissues.
GHRP-2 is a hexapeptide which is in the class of drugs known as Growth hormone secretagogues. This drug class includes GHRP-6, GHRP-2, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin and it’s main function is to stimulate the pituitary gland to release more Growth Hormone which also results in elevated IGF-1 levels. GHRP-2 is a ghrelin agonist and it helps to stimulate the release of Growth Hormone in two ways. Firstly, it stimulates the pituitary gland to release more Growth Hormone and secondly it suppresses a hormone which restricts the release of growth hormone – Somatostatin.
GHRP-2 is the second generation GHRP and it is mainly used for increasing Growth Hormone and IGF-1 levels. In this regard, it is better than GHRP-6 and at the moment is preferred peptide for reaching highest increases in GH. The use of GHRP-2 can potentially lead to increased appetite.
GHRP-6 is a hexapeptide which is in the class of drugs known as Growth hormone secretagogues. This drug class includes GHRP-6, GHRP-2, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin and it’s main function is to stimulate the pituitary gland to release more Growth Hormone which also results in elevated IGF-1 levels. GHRP-6 is a ghrelin agonist and it helps to stimulate the release of Growth Hormone in two ways. Firstly, it stimulates the pituitary gland to release more Growth Hormone and secondly it suppresses a hormone which restricts the release of growth hormone – Somatostatin.
GHRP-6 is the first generation GHRP and bodybuilders use it for two reasons – the first is the elevation of Growth Homone and IGF-1 levels and the second is increased appetite. GHRP-6 is great addition for individuals who are struggling with appetite.
Gonadorelin is a synthetic version of GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone) which is released naturally from the hypothalamus gland. GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (Luteinizing Hormone). LH and FSH control the fertility in adults and development in children.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by females in the early stages of pregnancy to help balance and control woman’s hormones In males, HCG mimics LH (Luteinizing Hormone), which tricks the Leydig cells into producing testosterone when natural levels of LH are suppressed. This can theoretically aid in keeping the HPTA functioning while using anabolic steroids and make recovery easier. HCG is also used to help diagnose cancers.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a hormone that is produced, stored and secreted by the pituitary gland. It is very important in human development and HGH is at the highest levels during youth. HGH is responsible for growth and regeneration of our cells, it affects our bones, muscle, internal organs and also plays important role in countless other areas of our body.
HGH Fragment 176-191 is a hormone of the Growth Hormone class. As its name indicates, it is an isolated fragment of the Growth Hormone that is responsible for fat burning properties. Scientists have found that HGH Fragment regulates fat loss 12.5 times better than regular synthetic HGH. It also stops formation of fatty acids and other lipids. In addition, HGH Fragment 176-191 increases lean body mass, protein synthesis and improves the quality of sleep.
Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG), also known as Menotropin, is a medication used for treating infertility and fertility issues. HMG peptide is made for women where it stimulates the ovaries to mature follicles, therefore making them more fertile. HMG can also be used in men that are suffering from hypogonadism to increase sperm count. HMG contains LH and FSH activities in nearly identical proportions.
Hexarelin, also known as, Examorelin is a hexapeptide which is in the class of drugs known as Growth hormone secretagogues. This drug class includes GHRP-6, GHRP-2, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin and it’s main function is to stimulate the pituitary gland to release more Growth Hormone which also results in elevated IGF-1 levels. Hexarelin is the strongest GHRP in terms of Growth Hormone release. It has no effect on ghrelin (the peptide that induces hunger) but just like all other GHRP’s will lead to increased IGF-1 production. The use of Hexarelin will quickly lead to peptide receptor desensitization which doesn’t make it ideal for long term use but studies has shown that the pituitary gland recovers its sensitivity quickly so there is no pemament loss of sensitivity. According to studies, the constant use of Hexarelin will most likely lead to desentitization within two weeks.
IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor-1) is a hormone that is produced primarily by the liver and also in target tissues in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. The main role of IGF-1 is to promote cell growth and division. It is involved in cell repair, especially in the brain, heart and muscle.
IGF-1 DES is the shorter variant of the IGF-1 chain and is 10 times stronger than regular IGF-1. It has a half-life of approximately 20-30 minutes, which means it is a very fragile peptide. Thus, it should only be used at the site where muscle growth is desired. IGF-1 is a polypeptide and it stands for insulin-like growth factor. IGF-1 is primarily responsible for bone growth in children and muscle growth, recovery of adults.
IGF-1 LR3 (Long R3) is a synthetic analogue of naturally occurring hormone IGF-1. IGF-1 LR3 is chemically modified to avoid deactivation by IGF-1 binding proteins in the blood. Therefore, the modification results in a half-life of around 20-30 hours instead of 20 minutes. IGF-1 LR3 will travel through the body for approximately one day, binding to receptors and activating cellular communication that promotes muscle mass growth and bodyfat loss.
Ipamorelin is a pentipeptide which is in the class of drugs known as Growth hormone secretagogues. This drug class includes GHRP-6, GHRP-2, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin and it’s main function is to stimulate the pituitary gland to release more Growth Hormone which also results in elevated IGF-1 levels. Ipamorelin is the third generation GHRP and is solely used for Growth Hormone release and production of IGF-1. IGF-1 or Insulin-like Growth Factor 1, which is produced in liver is highly anabolic in its nature and plays a significant role in general growth, repair of muscular and skeletal tissue.
Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) is a growth factor that is derived from damaged muscle cells. MGF has a unique role in muscle development. MGF has the capability to induce damaged tissue growth and improvement by activating satellite cells and increasing the sensitivity of protein synthesis. This exclusive ability can make the recovery faster and accelerate speed up the muscle growth.
Mod GRF(1-29), also known as, tetrasubstituted GRF (1-29), is an injectable peptide used to increase Growth Hormone production. It is in the class of Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) analogs. Mod GRF(1-29) amplifies Growth Hormone pulse in the same fashion that GHRH does but it doesn’t induce the pulse of GH. That’s why it is recommended to combine Mod GRF(1-29) with a peptide of the GHRP (Growth hormone releasing peptide) category because if no GH pulse occurs during the time of Mod GRF(1-29) injection then it has nothing to amplify.
Melanotan 1, also known as Afamelanotide is a synthetic analogue of a-MSH (alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and is used to avoid skin damage caused by exposure to UV. Alpha-MSH is responsible for pigmentation of the skin and it also has influence in other body processes like appetite, lipid metabolism and libido. Melanotan 1 causes the skin to achieve tan by producing more melanin. The effectiveness of Melanotan 1 is thousand times more effective than naturally occurring a-MSH.
Melanotan 2 is an injectable hormone analogue of Alpha-MSH and it is used to promote tanning. Melanotan 2 works by stimulating Alpha-MSH receptors, which promote the production of melanin in response to Ultraviolet exposure. When Melanotan 2 is used, the user develops a tan as if he were a naturally darker skin type. As Alpha-MSH also contributes to sexual arousal, Melanotan 2 causes enhance libido and erections in males.
Oxytocin is a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a role in human bonding, sexual reproduction and during the childbirth. Oxycotin is released into the blood during the childbirth and during the breastfeeding. The presence of Oxytocin helps with childbirth, maternal bond and lactation. Newer studies show that Oxytocin can also combat and prevent aging of skeletal muscles. Scientists are also investigating Oxytocin as a treatment for depression, autism, emotionally unstable personality disorder, alcohol withdrawal syndrome and other diseases.
Pegylated Mechano Growth Factor, PEG-MGF, is a peptide mostly used for faster recovery after exercise. It is recognized being capable to repair muscle damage more effective than IGF-1. Since PEG-MGF is a variant of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, it is known for inducing better growth in adult muscles. It has also been proven that PEG-MGF causes growth of new cells near damaged muscle tissues which act as replacement cells in the damaged muscle. That means that by using PEG-MGF it is possible to create new muscle cells while repairing existing ones.
PT-141, a.k.a Bremelanotide is a synthetic peptide analogue of alpha-MSH. PT-141. Alpha-MSH (Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone) has significant influence in improving the body’s ability to control appetite, metabolism and sexual desire. PT-141 is a derivative of Melanotan 2 that lacks C-terminal amide group. PT-141 primarily used for treating erectile dysfunction in males and arousal disorders in females.
Selank is a heptapeptide developed by Russia. Selank mimics the effects immunomodulatory peptide tuftsin. It has been shown that Selank increases the production of serotonin. Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is linked to mood regulation and it also has ties to sleep and hunger regulation. The presence of Selank and it’s capability to increase the serotonin secretion means that users can experience improvements in terms of emotional state, hunger and sleep.
Semax is a heptapeptide mostly produced and prescribed in Russia for a wide range of health conditions but mostly for its evident neuroprotective, nootropic and neurorestorative effects. Semax has been found to produce anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects. Semax can be effective in the treatment of ADHD and depression. Medically Semax is used to treat stroke, TIA, PUD (peptic ulcer disease), cranial nerve disease and to improve immune system.
Sermorelin Acetate (GRF 1-29) is a peptide analogue of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). It means that Sermorelin stimulates the part of the brain that secretes and releases Growth Hormone. Sermorelin acts exactly the same as naturally occurring GHRH. By stimulating the brain, Sermorelin preserves growth hormone hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis that declines with aging. Sermorelin provides all of the effects of HGH and more. Another great benefit of Sermorelin is that it stimulates the pituitary gland to regenerate.
TB-500, also known as Thymosin Beta 4 is a synthetic version of the naturally occurring peptide that is used to accelerate healing, increase range of motion of injuries, reduces inflammation. TB-500 has been used widely on race horses but just recently humans have started experimenting with this peptide. TB-500 is especially suggested for treatment of chronic muscle injuries, such as muscle strains, tears or tendonitis.
Tesamorelin, also known as Egrifta, is a synthetic form of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and is traditionally used to decrease abdominal fat in HIV patients. This injectable peptide reduces belly fat that’s brought on by lipodystrophy. Tesamorelin works by signaling the pituitary gland to produce more growth hormone. It has been approved by FDA medication for HIV-related lipodystrophy.
Triptorelin is a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH). GnRH is responsible for signaling the brain to produce Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones are used to produce testosterone and sperm. Triptorelin signals the HPTA to produce more GnRH, therefore it signals the pituitary gland to produce LH and FSH, which means that more testosterone is produced in males. The correct dosing with Triptorelin is very important because too much GnRH can lead to hormone production shut down.